Patty burger is a restructured meat product, it is added with animal fat in the formula to reconstruct the texture, add juiciness, and give it a distinctive aroma. Generally, in making burger patties using animal fats, which mostly contain saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. Which can trigger cardiovascular disease, trigger several types of cancer and obesity.
In addition, the patty has disadvantages, which are the texture of the product is hard and fibrous, the color of the product is not uniform and it rancidity is easy due to the fat oxidation process.
The oxidation process occurs due to damage by enzymes which are closely related to the presence of microbes in fat so that it shortens the shelf life of food and can endanger human health. Because the spoilage microbe group will turn fresh food into rotten food and produce toxins (poisons), which sometimes show no change or physical damage.
So, a reformulation strategy with the help of an emulsion-based system is needed to improve nutritional quality and improve product appearance. One of them is the use of fat substitutes to replace animal fats into vegetable fats which are rich in unsaturated fatty acids in burger patty products. Because unsaturated fatty acids have better nutritional value and are antioxidants in the body.
Endemic plants from Papua Province, namely red fruit have the potential to be a fat substitute. Because the nutritional composition consists of 50.8-55.58% fat, 36.78-46.3% carbohydrates, 24-45 mg per 100 g vitamin C, 654-792 ppm phosphorus, 4919-5176 ppm calcium, 976-1592 ppm total carotenoids, and 1256-2016 ppm total tocopherol. It also contains bioactive compounds and fatty acids that can act as natural antimicrobials.
Therefore, the use of red fruit as a substitute for animal fat in burger patty dough is expected to be able to improve sensory quality, physico-chemical value, total plate count value, and microstructure appearance.
This was explained by Selvia Tharukliling, S.Pt., MP. in a dissertation research entitled “Activity of Bioactive Compounds of Red Fruit Paste (Pandanus conoidus Lamk) in Patty Burger”, and has been tested openly online, Wednesday (6/01/2021).
This is because the teaching staff at the Department of Animal Husbandry, Santo Thomas Aquinas Jayapura College of Agricultural Sciences is registered as a Doctoral Program student at the Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Universitas Brawijaya (Fapet UB).
She argues that the red fruit paste, which is the residue of the traditional processed red fruit oil, has a soft, slightly oily, red emulsion texture. However, it has not been optimally utilized, especially in restructured meat products such as burger patties.
“The content contained in the red fruit oil will certainly be found in the red fruit paste even though in different levels.” she said
The research was carried out in three stages, in the initial stage, she compared the content of bioactive compounds (fatty acids, carotene and tocopherols) of red fruit paste taken from two different habitats.
Furthermore, testing the activity of the RFP extract using ethanol and n-hexane solvents on E. coli and S.aureus bacteria. Then the RFP is tested as a fat substitute with a level of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% in the burger patty formula at the final stage.
Meanwhile, the parameters tested included microbial quality, sensory quality by a hedonic test using trained panelists, brightness level with color testing, chemical quality using a proximate test and the appearance of a patty in microstructure.
Based on the research steps, Selvia concluded that the higher the level of red fruit paste, the higher the organoleptic value of the texture, aroma, color, juiceness, and microstructure appearance of the patty surface, the more evenly it was. As well as the Total Plate Count (TPC) number for microbial counts is getting lower.
However, the highest degree of brightness was on the patty with an RFP level of 15%, while the highest degree of yellow was on the patty with an RFP level of 5%. The protein content of the patty before and after cooking, the control treatment had a higher value than the patty with 15% RFP but for the value of the fat, carbohydrate, water, ash and carotene content of the patty with 15% RFP the value was higher than the control before and after. cooked. (dta / Humas UB/ Trans. Iir)