Red Ginger Extract to Suppress the Methane Gas Production by Ruminants

The livestock sector is a contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O). Ruminants are considered as one of the causes of global warming since they produce CH4 gas.
The second largest contributor to GHG, which is capable of retaining heat 25 times greater than carbon dioxide. CH4 gas along with CO2, hydrogen (H2), nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas are produced by rumen microbes which have a role in digesting fibrous feed in an aerobe condition.
Viewing this problem, a lecturer at the Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Sam Ratulangi University (Unsrat) made a breakthrough by utilizing red ginger extract to minimize CH4 gas production in ruminants. Is Ir. Nancy. W. H. Tuwaidan, MP who conducted a research entitled “Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale (L.) Rosc.) Extract to Suppress Methane Gas Production in Rumen by In Vitro.”
The research is a dissertation research which she put together with Prof. Dr. Ir. Hartutik, MP., IPU., ASEAN Eng., Prof. Dr. Kusmartono., Dr. Ir. Marjuki, M.Sc., and Dr. Anuraga Jayanegara,, M.Sc, and was tested openly online, Wednesday (23/12/2020).
In the initial stage of the research, Nancy extracted red ginger with methanol as solvent followed by partition based on polarity with n-hexane and ethyl acetate as solvent. Then the in vitro research was carried out by providing feed with a composition of 50% elephant grass, plus 50% concentrate, plus 2% red ginger extract, and control without extract. Then the use of n-hexane fractions with levels of 0%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% in complete feed each with a forage balance of 75%: 25% concentrate; forage 25%: 75% concentrate.
The data result from the measurement of each variable were tabulated and analyzed for variance with a completely randomized factorial design and continued with the Least Significant Different Test.
The results of the first phase of research showed that the methanol macerate of fresh red ginger was more than the dry one. As well as producing n-hexane fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, water fraction from macerate partition of methanol extract.
Meanwhile, the use of n-hexane fraction 2% red ginger in the 50:50 combination of forage and concentrate resulted in the lowest total gas production value and methane gas production. But it improves dry matter digestibility, organic matter digestibility, propionic fatty acid proportion and total bacteria.
The use of n-hexane fraction level in a combination of forage 75% and 25% concentrate; 25% forage and 75% concentrate resulted in a decrease in total gas with increasing treatment levels as well as methane gas production.
The conclusion is that both fractionated and combined methanol red ginger extract has the potential to be used as a feed additive. Supplementation of the 2% red ginger n-hexane fraction in complete feed with a balance of 50% forage and 50% concentrate resulted in low gas production values ​​and increased digestibility of dry matter.
Meanwhile, 2% red ginger n-hexane supplementation in complete feed with a balance of 50% forage and 50% concentrate can increase the proportion of propionic acid and mitigate methane gas. Supplementation of 2% red ginger n-hexane in elephant grass feed and concentrate with different ratios (75%: 25%) can mitigate methane gas. (dta/ Humas UB/ Trans. Iir)